The antidiabetic drugs aim to control glucose metabolism and, in a nonspecialized approach, we can affirm that their gold objective is to lower blood glucose levels.Therefore, most of their mechanisms of <a href="http://www.targetmol.com/compound/Ginsenoside-Rg3">buy
Ginsenoside Rg3</a> action are intimately linked with glucose metabolism.Unfortunately, most of these compounds compensate loss of insulin sensitivity, of insulin action or of insulin secretion, as well as other mechanisms responsible for the disease, but are unable to avoid or treat some of the deleterious effects.In addition, this is a field of research in constant change with the development of new products and intense research.Glycemic control in diabetic patients is sometimes quite difficult do attain.Therefore, it is urgent that the scientific community provides new and better options to improve the use of the current available drugs and to highlight the most suitable therapies.Of particular relevance is the study of the pathophysiological alterations that diabetic individuals suffer and how the available drugs may affect those processes.There are several options for the treatment of diabetic patients, with distinct modes of action.Notably, some of those compounds were developed or are in development to treat other diseases, particularly obesity, which is a major cause for the establishment of DM.Thus, the complexity of compounds available, their modes of action and their biological activities are hot topics of debate for multiple areas of the human health, particularly for cardiovascular, renal, neurologic and even cancer pathologies.DM is a multifactorial disease, which indicates that a complex analysis is needed when searching for new targets to treat this disease or the mode of action of compounds with potential antidiabetic activity.Moreover, several of these compounds, if not all, have the ability to alter cellular metabolism in a way that may be of benefit in some organs, but cause damage in others.It was not until the s that biguanides were reinvestigated for the treatment of DM.In the late s, three biguanides with antidiabetic action were reported: phenformin. It is usually described as the first line treatment to this disorder, along with diet and exercise. Met is an insulinsensitizing drug that exerts its antihyperglycemic effects by blocking liver gluconeogenesis through regulation of the gluconeogenic flux, rather than direct inhibition of gluconeogenic gene expression. It also increases skeletal muscle uptake of glucose and reduces the absorption of glucose in the intestinal mucosa. AMPK acts as a regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as cellular energy regulation, through phosphorylation of some key proteins. The increase in its activity results in several biological alterations including: stimulation of glucose uptake in muscle; fatty acid oxidation in liver and muscle; inhibition of hepatic glucose production, cholesterol and triglyceride synthesis; and lipogenesis. Met has a main advantage over other biguanides, which is the very low probability to promote lactic acidosis. However, it has some disadvantages, such as adverse gastrointestinal effects. Although considered the firstline pharmacological agent for TDM individuals, in many patients the administration of this drug is insufficient to reach glycemic control and a second agent is added to the treatment. AMPK is present in all cell compartments of the ovary and its expression could be different depending on the maturation stage.